It is recommended that you exercise for _________ a day.
Which of the following are healthy ways to cope with stress? Check all that apply.
Which of the following are part of Alameda 7? Check all that apply.
No smoking, eat breakfast every day, and no snacking.
A(n) is a specific programs designed to assess levels of behavior, introduce ways to change them, measure whether a change has occurred, and assess the impact of the change.
What were the findings of the Framingham Heart Study?
What’s the main difference between a biomedical approach and a biopsychosocial approach?
Carolyn Wood Sherif was born in Indiana in 1922. Sherif’s family greatly valued education, as her father was a professor at Purdue University. She graduated from Purdue after studying science in a historical and humanistic context. Next, she received her master’s at the university of Iowa. After graduation, Sherif reached out to a social psychologist at Princeton University, Hadley Cantril, for advice about her future. He offered her an opportunity to research with Muzafer Sherif, she accepted. Sherif was not permitted to attend Princeton as a graduate student because she was a women. She took classes at Columbia University and researched attitude formation and intergroup relations with Muzafer at Princeton. In 1945, Sherif and Muzafer married.
Sherif continued to research with her husband, but she was often not taken seriously in the academic community, perhaps because Muzafer overshadowed her. Their most well known study came about in 1954, known as the Robbers Cave Experiment. It studied intergroup conflict and cooperation of boys at a summer camp. The experiment suggested that competition leads to conflict and group problem solving leads to unity. This study is often referenced in the social psychology community.
After having three daughters, Sherif went back to school at the University of Texas to obtain her PhD. After she received her PhD, she worked on a project that primarily focused on self-concept and the goals of youth. It was funded by the United States Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. Next, she began research at the Institute of Group Relations in Oklahoma. Much of her work here focused on youth, reference groups, attitudes, and social judgment.
Near the end of her career, she began to focus on the psychology of gender. She studied gender bias in psychological research, gender roles, identity, and reproduction. Her increased interest in feminist psychology lead Sherif to be a founder of Division 35 of the American Psychological Association, also called the Society of the Psychology of Women. She held the position of president from 1979- 1980. Sherif was also given the Association for Women in Psychology’s Distinguished Publication Award in 1981 for her amazing work.
Leta Stetter Hollingworth was born in 1886 into a world that viewed women as inferior to men. Hollingworth initially focused her career on the psychology of women, but later shifted her focus to education. She first went to school to be a teacher, but after marrying Harry Levi Hollingworth, she was no longer allowed to teach according to societal rules. Hollingworth was a homemaker for about two years when she decided that it was not fulfilling enough for her. With the encouragement of her husband, she went back to school and received her PhD in education at Columbia in 1916. Shortly after, she became New York City’s very first civil service psychologist and obtained the position of chief of the psychological lab at Bellevue Hospital.
Hollingworth began work with E. L. Thorndike. Thorndike was a believer in the variability hypothesis. The variability hypothesis states that men exhibit greater variation than women on both physical and psychological traits. Hollingworth decided to disprove this hypothesis with empirical research. Her findings suggested that if there was a difference in variability, it would have favored women.
After tackling the variability hypothesis, Hollingworth decided to write her dissertation on the belief that women could not be as productive as men during menstruation. She tested men’s and women’s performance on cognitive, perceptual and motor tasks for three months. Hollingworth found no empirical evidence proving a relationship between poor performance and the menstrual cycle.
Thorndike, her mentor, was moved by her research and gave her a position at Columbia Teachers College. While she was teaching, she also began to study children of extreme intelligence and coined the term “gifted.” She wrote several books on education: The Psychology of Subnormal Children (1920), Special Talents and Defects (1923), and The Psychology of the Adolescent (1928). Her topics ranged from the belief that children who struggled in school often were smart, but had problems with adjustment to how to successfully educate gifted students.
Hollingworth continued her research on gifted children up until her death in 1939. Her last study was published after her death, completed by her husband Harry Levi Hollingworth.
Kenneth Clark, born in 1914, grew up in Harlem, N.Y.. Clark was a psychologist and a Civil Rights Activist. He is most well known for the famous doll studies conducted by himself and his wife, Mamie Phipps Clark. The thesis behind this study, “The Development of Consciousness of Self in Negro Preschool Children,” was actually written by Mamie while she was obtaining her master’s degree. Clark took an interest in her research and became a partner in the doll studies, suggesting that they also look at self-identification in African American children.
During the doll study, Clark and his wife would ask African American and White children to show them a doll based on a series of statements:
- “Show me the doll that’s a white doll.”
- “Show me the doll that’s a brown doll.”
- “Show me the doll that you like to play with.”
- “Show me the doll that’s a nice doll.”
- “Show me the doll that’s a bad doll.”
- “Show me the doll that looks like you.”
Clark explained in an interview that some African American children were so upset with their answer to the last question that they would cry, leave the room, or refuse to answer. The findings from this experiment showed the negative effects segregation had on African American children. While studying self-identification, they also found high amounts of internalized racism.
Their findings were used in the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, ending racial segregation in American public schools.
In 1946, Clark and his wife opened the Northside Center for Child Development in his hometown of Harlem. It was one of the first child guidance centers in the area to offer families psychological and casework services. The Northside Center for Child Development is still running today and has been helping children develop resilience, confidence, and self-worth for over 70 years.
The Clarks were the first African Americans to receive a PhD in psychology from Columbia. Clark was head of the Board of Education in New York City. He worked hard to integrate schools, decrease class sizes, improve curriculum, and update facilities. He was also the first African American president of the American Psychological Association.